May  2024 22
Culture and Development: When Indigenous Weaving Becomes Community Heritage
作者 江明親
Author Min-chin Chiang
關鍵詞 非物質文化遺產、原住民織布、社群、文化、發展
Keywords Intangible Cultural Heritage, Indigenous Weaving, Community, Culture, Development
摘要 《聯合國教科文組織保護非物質文化遺產公約》的通過,反映「文化」與「發展」關係的辯證以及其脈絡,總結1970年代以來對於「傳統文化阻礙發展」論述的批判,也為「內生發展」的概念開闢路徑。這個概念的轉變,看重在地社群文化以及少數族群,並且進一步連結文化與發展,然而究竟文化保存在發展的過程中是否得到對等的比重仍是課題,尤其對於原住民社群而言。「文化產業化,產業文化化」是1990年代臺灣政府所提出的標語,正暗示了上述的課題。2016年文資法的大幅修訂,導入非遺公約的概念和語言,再一次強化社群的核心價值,但也再次顯現和發展導向間的拉鋸。本文以臺灣的原住民織布文化資產為例,藉由2015至2021年間的實務參與、觀察,以及文獻研究,再現社群和遺產保存脈絡中所產生的「文化與發展」課題。
Abstract The UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICHC) reflects the wider context of the debates on the relationship between culture and development and criticised the notion that (traditional) culture hindered development in the 1970s, introducing the concept of endogenous development. This conceptual shift values the culture of local communities and ethnic minorities and connects culture with development. Recognising the interdependence of culture and development, the ICHC emphasises that safeguarding ICH ensures the sustainable development of a community. Heritage and identity have gradually become incorporated into the concept of culture and development. However, whether cultural preservation is equally as essential to development, particularly in indigenous communities, remains unclear.
In the 1990s, the Taiwanese government adopted the objective “to industrialise culture and to culturalise industries”. This highlights the paradox of culture and development, created by the intersection of long-term historical consequences in Taiwan. One thread corresponds to the introduction of modern capitalism (no later than the 1920s) to indigenous weaving craft, creating a heritage market by replacing indigenous weaving practices with modern techniques, materials, tools, and aesthetics for tourism and export purposes; this continues into postwar and contemporary production. The other thread concerns the reconstruction of an endogenous knowledge system, protected through a community-centred approach. The confluence of the threads stems from the implementation of a community development programme in the 1990s and of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act of Taiwan and its 2016 amendments, which are based on the ICHC. On the basis of six years of empirical data, field work, and literature review, this study adopts the indigenous weaving heritage in Taiwan as a case to study the paradox of culture and development in the context of cultural heritage and community movements.


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